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My answer covers differences in phonetics. Some major differences in phonetics go this way:
- The /r/ sound is not heard in British and Australian English unless it comes just before a vowel sound in the next word. For example: in “far away”, the /r/ is heard, but not in “the other man”. In American English, all instances of /r/ are heard.
- The vowel /ɒ/ is a feature of British English, not American English. This vowel lies somewhere between /ɑː/ and /ɔː/. American English uses either /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ wherever British English uses /ɒ/. So “dog” is /dɒg/ in BrE, but /dɔːg/ in American. “got” is /gɒt/ in BrE, but /gɑːt/ in American.
- The diphthongs /ɪə ʊə ɛə/, as in “near”, “pure”, “hair”, are used in British English. The Americans pronounce these as /ɪr ʊr ɛr/. So “near” is just like “nit” with “t” replaced by “r”, and likewise.
- Tapping of /t/: In American English, if a /t/ sound is between two vowels, and the second vowel is not stressed, the /t/ sound is pronounced very quickly. So “twenty” would sound more like “twenny” with a very slight /t/ sound.
- The diphthong /əʊ/ of British English is heard as /oʊ/ in American English. So the word “so” is /səʊ/ in BrE and /soʊ/ in American.